Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment for juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), but few large studies of HSCT for JMML exist. Using data from the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation registry, we analyzed the outcomes of 129 children with JMML who underwent HSCT between 2000 and 2011. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and cumulative incidence of relapse were 64% and 34%, respectively. A regimen of busulfan/fludarabine/melphalan was the most commonly used (59 patients) and provided the best outcomes; the 5-year OS rate reached 73%, and the cumulative incidences of relapse and transplantation-related mortality were 26% and 9%, respectively. In contrast, the use of the irradiation-based myeloablative regimen was the most significant risk factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.92; P = .004) in the multivariate model. In addition, chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was strongly associated with lower relapse (HR, 0.37; P = .029) and favorable survival (HR, 0.22; P = .006). The current study has shown that a significant proportion of children with JMML can be cured with HSCT, especially those receiving the busulfan/fludarabine/melphalan regimen. Based on the lower relapse and better survival observed in patients with chronic GVHD, additional treatment strategies that focus on enhancing graft-versus-leukemia effects may further improve survival.
ASJC Scopus subject areas