Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) resection during surgery for advanced gallbladder cancer. Methods: Among 110 patients with pT2 or higher grade gallbladder cancer, 58 patients without microscopic invasion to the EHBD were reviewed. Prognostic factors of the 58 patients were evaluated by multivariate analysis. The impact of EHBD resection on survival was assessed in relation to two prognostic determinants: (i) lymph node metastasis: positive (n = 23) and negative (n = 35); (ii) perineural invasion: positive (n = 25) and negative (n = 33). Results: Hepatic metastasis and perineural invasion were found to be independently significant prognostic factors. (i) No survival benefit of additional EHBD resection could be confirmed in each group of patients with or without nodal metastasis. (ii) In 25 patients with perineural invasion, 14 patients who underwent EHBD resection showed better survival as compared to the 11 patients who did not undergo EHBD resection (5-year survival rate, 46% vs. 0%, P = 0.009). In the remaining 33 patients without perineural invasion, the additional EHBD resection did not yield significant improvement of survival (P = 0.28). Conclusions: Resection of EHBD may offer prognostic advantage when perineural invasion exists, even in the absence of biliary infiltration.
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