Objectives: To investigate the clinical utility of the Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) by comparing its diagnostic performance for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) between radiologists and urologists based on multiparametric MRI, including three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted acquisitions. Methods: This study included 66 treatment-naïve patients (60 men, 6 women; mean age 74.0 years) with pathologically proven bladder cancer who underwent multiparametric MRI, including 3D FSE T2-weighted imaging, before transurethral bladder tumour resection between January 2010 and November 2018. The MRI scans were categorised according to the five-point VI-RADS score by four independent readers (two board-certified radiologists and board-certified urologists each), blinded to the histopathological findings. The VI-RADS scores were compared with the postoperative histopathological diagnosis. Interobserver agreement was assessed using weighted kappa coefficients. ROC analysis and generalised estimating equations were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Results: Forty-nine (74.2%) and 17 (25.8%) tumours were confirmed to be non-MIBC and MIBC, respectively, based on pathological examination. The interobserver agreement was good-to-excellent between all pairs of readers (range, 0.73–0.91). The urologists’ sensitivity/specificity values for DCE-MRI VI-RADS scores were significantly lower than those of radiologists. No significant differences were observed for the overall VI-RADS score. The AUC for the overall VI-RADS score was 0.94, 0.92, 0.89, and 0.87 for radiologists 1 and 2 and urologists 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions: The VI-RADS score, based on multiparametric MRI including 3D FSE T2-weighted acquisitions, can be useful for radiologists and urologists to determine the bladder cancer muscle invasion status preoperatively. Key Points: • VI-RADS (using multiparametric MRI including 3D FSE T2-weighted acquisitions) achieves good to excellent interobserver agreement and has similar diagnostic performance for detecting muscle invasion by both radiologists and urologists. • The diagnostic performance of the overall VI-RADS score is high for both radiologists and urologists, particularly due to the dominant effect of diffusion-weighted imaging on the overall VI-RADS score. • The sensitivity and specificity values of the T2WI VI-RADS scores for four readers in our study (using 3D FSE T2-weighted acquisitions) were similar (with slightly higher specificity values) to previously published results (using 2D FSE T2-weighted acquisitions).
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