Objective: While the most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the general population is ischemic cardiac disease including acute myocardial infarction (AMI), previous preliminary data highlighted pulmonary embolism (PE) as a common cause of SCA among psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to examine the proportion of patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders among patients hospitalized for either AMI or PE using a Japanese nationwide database. Methods: This study used Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) data between April 2013 and March 2018 provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. The DPC data included information on the causes of hospitalization and comorbidities of psychiatric diseases among inpatients in all acute care hospitals in Japan. The proportions of patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10 code F20), mood disorders (F31 or F32), and no psychiatric disorders were analyzed among patients who were hospitalized for AMI and PE. Results: The data from 351,159 AMI patients (mean age = 70.3 years) and 52,036 PE patients (mean age = 69.2 years) were used. Mortality rates were 8.0%–14.4% in AMI patients and 4.3%–9.8% in PE patients. The AMI group was predominantly male. The proportions of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder were significantly higher in the PE group than in the AMI group (schizophrenia: 2.53% [1,314/52,036] vs 0.55% [1,922/351,159], P< .001; mood disorder: 2.94% [1,532/52,036] vs 0.60% [2,099/351,159], P< .001). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of PE as a major cause of SCA in this specific population and the need for preventive measures to mitigate the mortality gap among patients with psychiatric disorders.
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