The S2 alar-iliac screw (S2AIS) is commonly used for long spinal fusion as a rigid distal foundation in spinal deformity surgeries, and it is also used in percutaneous sacropelvic fixation for providing an in-line connection to the proximal spinal constructs without using offset connectors. Although the pelvic shape is different between males and females, reports on S2AIS trajectories according to gender have been scarce in the literature. In this paper, S2AIS trajectories are compared between males and females using pelvic three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) in a normal Japanese population. After resetting the caudal angulation in CT-imaging plane manipulation, the angulation of S2AIS was more lateral in the axial plane and more horizontal in the coronal plane in females. Mean distances from the midline to starting points of S2AIS tended to be shorter in females, whereas mean distances from the midline to the posterior superior iliac spine was significantly longer in females. We also found that there were positive correlations between the patients’ height and the maximal lengths of S2AISs, and the patients’ height and minimal areas of S2AIS pathways. Our results are useful not only for conventional open spinal surgery, but also for minimally invasive spine surgery.
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