Background: Due to the wide variations in location, size, local invasiveness, and treatment options, the complications associated with surgery for giant cell tumor of bone have been sporadically reported. For quality assessment, fundamental data based on large-scale surveys of complications under a universal evaluation system is needed. The Dindo-Clavien classification is an evaluation system for complications based on severity and required intervention type and is suitable for the evaluation of surgery in a heterogeneous cohort. Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective survey of 141 patients who underwent surgery for giant cell tumor of bone in the extremity was performed. The incidence and risk factors of complications, type of intervention for complication control, and impact of complications on functional and oncological outcomes were analyzed using the Dindo-Clavien classification. Results: Forty-six cases (32.6%) had one or more complications. Of them, 18 (12.8%), 11 (7.8%), and 17 (12.1%) cases were classified as Dindo-Clavien classification grade I, II, and III complications, respectively. There were no cases with grade IV or V complications. Progression in Campanacci grading (p = 0.04), resection (over curettage, p < 0.0001), reconstruction with prosthesis (p = 0.0007), and prolonged operative duration (p = 0.0002) were significant risk factors for complications. Complications had a significant impact on function (p < 0.0001). Differences in the impact of complication types and tumor location on function were confirmed. Complications had no impact on local recurrence and metastasis development. Conclusion: The Dindo-Clavien classification could provide fundamental information, under a uniform definition and classification system, on postoperative complications in patients with giant cell tumor of bone in terms of incidence, type of intervention for complication control, risk factors, and impact on functional outcome. The data are useful not only for preoperative evaluation for the risk of complications under specific conditions but also for quality assessment of surgery for giant cell tumor of bone.
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