ABSTRACT: There is a need to comprehensively identify depression-related factors, including individual and socioeconomic factors, in each country or cultural area, to consider effective measures to address depression within communities. However, there are not enough studies on middle-aged residents in Japan or other Eastern countries to currently achieve this. Thus, the aim of this study was to comprehensively identify factors related to depression in middle-aged residents in Japan, an Eastern country.The study design was cross-sectional. A questionnaire survey was conducted among all community residents aged 40 to 59 in a rural municipality in Western Japan. The questionnaire contained items on demographic characteristics, psychological factors, health-related behaviors, and socioeconomic factors. A Chi-Squared test or Fisher exact test was used to analyze the relationships between depression and each assessed factor. Next, a logistic regression analysis was performed to identify comprehensive relationships between depression and its related factors.Data from 362 participants were analyzed. The average age was 51.5 years; 148 were male. A Chi-Squared test or Fisher exact test demonstrated that many psychological factors, health-related behaviors, and socioeconomic factors ware significantly related to depression. A logistic regression analysis showed that depression was significantly associated with male gender, low sense of coherence, high cognitive stress levels, low help-seeking behavior, poor quality sleep, and a lack of hobbies. Nagelkerke R2 was 51%.This study revealed through multivariate analysis that depression was primarily associated with personal behavioral and psychological factors in Japan, an Eastern country with a holistic cultural background. This result is consistent with findings from Western countries. This study can contribute the promotion and evaluation of preventive measures for depression in Eastern culture that focus on individual behavioral and psychological factors.
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