Sarcoma is a rare cancer with several subtypes; therefore, our understanding of the pathogenesis of sarcoma is limited, and designing effective treatments is difficult. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), including exosomal miRNAs, have attracted attention as biomarkers in cancer. However, the roles of miRNAs and exosomes in sarcoma remain unclear. The present analysis of tissue and serum miRNA expression in osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) identified miR-1246, -4532, -4454, -619-5p and -6126 as biomarkers for DDLPS. These miRNAs were highly expressed in human DDLPS cell lines and exosomes, suggesting that they are secreted from DDLPS tissues. The present results suggested that specific miRNAs may be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis or treatment targets in DDLPS.
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