A simple expression is derived of the componential contributions that different dynamical effects make to the frictional drag in turbulent channel, pipe and plane boundary layer flows. The local skin friction can be decomposed into four parts, i.e., laminar, turbulent, inhomogeneous and transient components, the second of which is a weighted integral of the Reynolds stress distribution. It is reconfirmed that the near-wall Reynolds stress is primarily important for the prediction and control of wall turbulence. As an example, the derived expression is used for an analysis of the drag modification by the opposition control and by the uniform wall blowing/suction.
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