Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to insulin resistance (IR) and sarcopenia, which are associated with a high mortality risk in CKD patients; however, their pathophysiologies remain unclear. Recently, alterations in gut microbiota have been reported to be associated with CKD. We aimed to determine whether uremic dysbiosis contributes to CKD-associated IR and sarcopenia. Methods. CKD was induced in specific pathogen-free mice via an adenine-containing diet; control animals were fed a normal diet. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed by oral gavage in healthy germ-free mice using cecal bacterial samples obtained from either control mice (control-FMT) or CKD mice (CKD-FMT). Vehicle mice were gavaged with sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Two weeks after inoculation, mice phenotypes, including IR and sarcopenia, were evaluated. Results. IR and sarcopenia were evident in CKD mice compared with control mice. These features were reproduced in CKD-FMT mice compared with control-FMT and vehicle mice with attenuated insulin-induced signal transduction and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscles. Intestinal tight junction protein expression and adipocyte sizes were lower in CKD-FMT mice than in control-FMT mice. Furthermore, CKD-FMT mice showed systemic microinflammation, increased concentrations of serum uremic solutes, fecal bacterial fermentation products and elevated lipid content in skeletal muscle. The differences in gut microbiota between CKD and control mice were mostly consistent between CKD-FMT and control-FMT mice. Conclusions. Uremic dysbiosis induces IR and sarcopenia, leaky gut and lipodystrophy.
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