Geometric and electronic structures of Sm adlayers on Cu(1 0 0) and (1 1 0) were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The present results, in addition to the previous results for Sm/Cu(1 1 1) [Y. Nakayama, H. Kondoh, T. Ohta, Surf. Sci. 552 (2004) 53], indicate that the valence state of Sm adsorbed on Cu surfaces is determined by Sm-Sm and Sm-Cu coordination numbers. We propose that the valence state of the adsorbed Sm atoms can be explained by a simple thermodynamic equation including the coordination numbers.
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