Breast reconstruction following the resection of breast cancer with inadequate residual chest-wall tissue may be performed with an implant or a myocutaneous flap, such as the latissimus dorsi or a rectus abdominis. Among a variety of operative procedures, each method has advantages and disadvantages. The insertion of a silicone-bag prosthesis is the easiest method, but the prosthetic implant sometimes has complications, such as unfavorable capsular contracture formation around the implant, rupture, infection, or exposure. We therefore use an extended latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (ELD-MC) flap with some amount of surrounding subcutaneous fat from the lumbar area, and avoid the use of any implant with an MC flap. Also, for the reconstruction and correction of infraclavicular and axillary depression, we use the extended vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (EVRAM) flap. This method uses the skin and fat on both sides of the umbilicus as a lenticular flap vascularized by only one of the rectus abdominis muscles. The patients are satisfied with the outcome because symmetry and good breast volume can be obtained. There have been no functional or anatomical defects of the donor area. No abdominal hernia after an EVRAM flap has resulted to date. Both the ELD-MC and EVRAM flaps can be successfully used for cosmetic breast reconstruction after the resection of breast cancer.
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