Pharmacologic knowledge is important for pediatricians conducting feasible pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies or applying effective antimicrobial therapies in children. Because of the difficulties in conducting PK/PD studies in children, antimicrobial PK/PD data in children are still limited. To fill in the lack of knowledge, promotion of population PK/PD analysis, which allows us to handle sparse sampling data from individual patients, is important because it is considered a suitable methodology to conduct PK/PD studies in children with limited blood drug concentration data for PK/PD analysis. Population PK/PD analysis is also useful in the clinical setting to provide individualized optimal dosage for each patient with various conditions. Here we summarized the current aspects of pediatric PK/PD studies of antimicrobials in Japan from clinical and research perspectives, specifically focusing on the importance of population PK/PD analysis.
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