Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the cause of UC is postulated to be multifactorial in nature, including genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulation of immune responses, and environmental factors, the specific pathogenesis of UC is still incompletely understood. In the treatment of UC so far, a method of suppressing immunity and treating it has been mainstream. Immunosuppressant drugs, including thiopurines (azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine), anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) antibody (infliximab and adalimumab), and calcineurin inhibitor, can be used in treat patients with corticosteroid-dependent and/or corticosteroid-refractory moderateto-severe UC. Recently, in addition to such a conventional therapeutic agent, golimumab, which is the first transgenic human monoclonal anti-TNF-α antibody to be fabricated, anti α-4/β-7 integrin antibody, and Janus kinase inhibitor have been reported to novel immunosuppressant therapy. Furthermore, other treatments with unique mechanisms different from immunosuppression, have also been suggested, including fecal microbiota transplantation and Indigo naturalis, which is a Chinese herbal medicine. We compared the features and efficacy of these new treatments. In this issue, the features and treatment options for these new treatments is reviewed.
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