With increasing focus on the importance of long-term survivorship care after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), more institutions have been establishing long-term follow-up (LTFU) clinics. Currently, however, with varying volumes of HCT procedures and resources, there is no standardized operation of these clinics in HCT centers. We conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey to characterize the current operation of LTFU clinics in Japan. We targeted 271 HCT centers (189 adult and 82 pediatric) that registered allo-HCT cases to the national transplant registry database. The response rate was 69%, and 117 of the 188 participating centers (62%) had an established LTFU clinic. The most frequent reason cited for not operating an LTFU clinic was a “lack of human resources,” especially nurses. Most centers with an LTFU clinic targeted allo-HCT recipients, although autologous HCT survivors were followed up at 18% of adult centers and 48% of pediatric centers. Ninety-two percent of centers did not terminate LTFU at a specific time point, and 56% recommended that patients visit the LTFU clinic beyond 5 years after HCT. Fifteen of 20 pediatric centers indicated that they did not routinely refer survivors who underwent HCT at a young age to an adult HCT center for their adulthood LTFU. We found that staffing and standard practices varied widely among centers, and that most centers continued to see long-term HCT survivors at their own outpatient clinics. The development of common LTFU tools may help standardize LTFU practices and facilitate efficient transitions.
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