Background: Thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic diseases are treated using operative procedures like open aortic repair (OAR), thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), or hybrid aortic repair (HAR), or a combination of OAR and TEVAR. The surgical approach to aortic repair has evolved over the decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the current trends in treatment. Methods: We extracted nationwide data of aortic repair procedures performed in 2015 and 2016 from the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD). In addition to estimating the number of cases, we also reviewed the respective operative mortalities and associated major morbidities (e.g., stroke, spinal cord insufficiency, and renal failure) according to disease pathology (e.g., acute dissection, chronic dissection, ruptured aneurysm, and unruptured aneurysm), site of operative repair (i.e., aortic root, ascending aorta, aortic root to arch, aortic arch, descending aorta, and thoracoabdominal aorta), and the preferred surgical approach (i.e., OAR, HAR, or TEVAR). Results: The total number of cases studied was 35,427, with an overall operative mortality rate of 7.3%. Among the 3 procedures, 64% of patients were treated with OAR. Compared to the data from our previous report (also derived from the JCVSD in 2013 and 2014), the total number of cases and number of OAR, HAR, and TEVAR procedures have increased by 17.0%, 2.4%, 126.1%, and 34.9%, respectively. While the overall stroke rates following aortic arch surgical repair with HAR, OAR, and TEVAR were 10.1%, 8.4%, and 7.3%, respectively, OAR was found to have the lowest stroke rate when limited to cases presenting with a non-dissected/unruptured aorta. The incidence rates of paraplegia following descending/thoracoabdominal aortic surgical repair using HAR, OAR, and TEVAR were 6.3%/10.4%, 4.3%/8.9%, and 3.4%/4.6%, respectively. TEVAR was found to be associated with the lowest incidence of postoperative renal failure. Conclusions: The number of operations for thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic diseases has increased, though the rate of operations using an OAR approach has decreased. While TEVAR showed the lowest mortality and morbidity rates, OAR demonstrated the lowest postoperative stroke rate for non-dissecting aortic arch aneurysms.
ASJC Scopus subject areas