Background: The environment surrounding Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment is dramatically changing. Recently, vonoprazan, a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB), was introduced onto the market in 2015. The aging of Japan’s demographic structure is becoming pronounced. In this study, we examined the trend of the eradication rate of H. pylori in the metropolitan area and examined factors concerning successful eradication. Methods: We collected data from 20 hospitals in the Tokyo metropolitan area on patients who received first-line eradication therapy with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)/P-CAB, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for 1 week and second-line eradication therapy with a PPI/P-CAB, amoxicillin, and metronidazole for 1 week from 2013 to 2018. The annual eradication rate and associated factors for successful eradication were analyzed. Results: We collected data of 4097 and 3572 patients in the first- and second-line eradication therapies, respectively. The eradication rate decreased from 2013 to 2014 and increased again from 2015 to 2018 with the first-line therapy [the eradication rates in 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 were 71.8%, 63.7%, 78.5%, 84.6%, 89.7 and 90.1%, respectively, in the per protocol (PP)]. The second-line eradication rates were 90.0%, 82.6%, 88.8%, 87.5%, 91.8% and 90.1% in 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively, in PP. Vonoprazan was an independent factor for successful eradication in not only first-line, but also second-line eradication. Age over 75 years was an independent factor for eradication failure in both first- and second-line eradication therapies. Conclusion: The eradication rate improved from 2015 to 2018 with the first-line therapy because of the introduction of vonoprazan in the market. The eradication rates with first- and second-line regimens in elderly patients were lower than those in younger patients.
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