Significant achievements in the organ replacement approach for malignancies over the last 2 decades opened new horizons, and the age of Transplant Oncology has dawned. The indications of liver transplantation for malignancies have been carefully expanded by a strict patient selection to assure comparable outcomes with non-malignant diseases. Currently, the Milan criteria, gold standard for hepatocellular carcinoma, are being challenged by high-volume centers worldwide. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and liver transplantation for unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma has been successful in specialized institutions. For other primary and metastatic liver tumors, clinical evidence to establish standardized criteria is lacking. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation is an option for low-grade neoplasms deemed unresectable by conventional surgery. However, the procedure itself is in the adolescent stage. Solid organ transplantation for malignancies inevitably suffers from triple distress, i.e., oncological, immunological, and technical. Organ bioengineering and regenerative medicine should serve as the triple threat therapy and revolutionize Transplant Oncology.
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