Though assisted reproduction technology has been developed, a treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI), such as defects in the uterus, has not yet been established. Regenerative medicine has been developed and applied clinically over recent years; however, whole solid organs still cannot be produced. Though uterine regeneration has the potential to be a treatment for AUFI, there have been only a few studies on uterine regeneration involving the myome-trium in vivo. In the present report, those relevant articles are reviewed. A literature search was conducted in PubMed with a combination of key words, and 10 articles were found, including nine in rat models and one in a mouse model. Of these studies, eight used scaffolds and two were performed without scaffolds. In four of these studies, scaffolds were re-cellularized with various cells. In the remaining four studies, scaffolds were transplanted alone, or other structures were used. Though the methods differed, the injured uterus recovered well, morphologically and functionally, in every study. Only 10 articles were relevant to our investigation, but the results were favorable, if limited to partial regeneration. Recently, uterus transplantation (UTx) has been investigated as a treatment for AUFI. However, UTx has many problems in the medical, ethical and social fields. Though the artificial uterus was also researched and some improvements in this technology were reported, it will take long time for this to reach a clinically applicable stage. Though the results of uterine regeneration studies were promising, these studies were conducted using animal models, so further human studies and trials are needed.
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