Background: Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is appropriate for the treatment of some neuroblastomas (NBs); however, the indications and technical issues are unclear. This study aimed to clarify the current status of MIS for mediastinal NB in Japan. Methods: Preliminary questionnaires requesting the numbers of neuroblastoma cases in which MIS was performed from 2004 to 2016 were sent to 159 Japanese institutes of pediatric surgery. Secondary questionnaires were sent to institutions with MIS cases to collect detailed data. Results: One hundred thirty-four (84.2%) institutions returned the preliminary questionnaire and 83 institutions (52.2%) reported a total of 1496 operative cases. MIS was performed for 175 (11.6%) cases. Among the 175 cases, completed forms of 140 patients were returned and 40 (male, n = 28; female, n = 12) cases had mediastinal NB. Fourteen patients received thoracoscopic biopsy, none were converted to thoracotomy. Twenty-eight patients received MIS for radical resection, none were converted to thoracotomy. Perioperative complications (Horner’s syndrome) were recognized after radical resection in one (2.5%) case. Conclusions: MIS was performed in a limited number of mediastinal NB cases. A thoracoscopic approach would be feasible for mediastinal NB.
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