Although oral cytology using Papanicolaou stain is useful for the early detection of oral premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in people, little work has been conducted on this topic in veterinary medicine. This paper describes the features of oral cytology using Papanicolaou stain and immunocytochemistry on liquid-based cytology slides in a case of oral SCC in an Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus). In this case, dysplastic cells with koilocyte-like changes and SCC cells were identified using the Papanicolaou stain. These cells were positive for p53 using an immunocytochemistry analysis. A cytologic diagnosis of SCC was made. We believe that the early detection of premalignant oral lesions and SCC in dolphins can be significantly improved with cytology using liquid-based cytology, Papanicolaou staining, and immunocytochemistry.
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