Background and purpose: Macro-arteriovenous fistulas (MAVFs) are arteriovenous shunts draining into a giant venous ectasia. They can be treated by surgery or embolisation. Angiographic controls are usually performed rapidly after treatment in order to prove the cure of the lesion but no long term angiographies are generally scheduled. We wanted to control the stabilities of such lesions at follow-up. Method: Clinical history and imaging of ninety-five patients with high flow shunts draining into venous ectasias (MAVFs, Vein of Galen malformations and dilatations) were reviewed. Results: De novo arteriovenous shunts related to angiogenesis involving vasa vasorum developed in three patients with MAVFs at various intervals. Genetic underlying conditions as HHT or RASA 1 mutations were suspected in each patient. Conclusions: Neo-angiogenesis can occur after cure of MAVFs. Long term imaging follow-ups should be considered as the natural history of such recurrent shunts is currently unknown.
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