Background/Purpose: The delayed local treatment approach (DL) in high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) refers to the process in which tumor resection is performed after the completion of all the courses of chemotherapy, including myeloablative high-dose chemotherapy (HDC). Alternatively, in the conventional local treatment approach (CL), tumor resection is performed during induction chemotherapy. In this study, we compared the surgical outcomes in HR-NB patients treated by CL and DL. Method: Forty-seven patients with abdominal HR-NB underwent primary tumor resection from 2002 to 2018. The timing of surgery was generally determined by following the trials and guidelines available at the time. The outcomes and surgical complications between the two strategies were compared. Result: Operation time, blood loss, and postoperative WBC counts were lower in the DL group (n = 25) when compared to the CL group (n = 22), statistical significance notwithstanding. Major vascular structures were less frequently encased in the DL group tumors, while immediate surgical complications were significantly more frequent in the CL group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the 3-year EFSs were 50.0% and 53.9% in the DL and CL groups, respectively. Conclusion: DL appears to be a feasible and effective treatment option for HR-NB. Nonetheless, further verifications using larger cohorts are warranted. Level of evidence: Treatment study, Level III.
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