Purpose: Considering the initial treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the best prognostic index for Child–Pugh classes B and C (CP-BC) patients has not been yet established. This study aimed to elucidate the risk factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in multicenter patients with a poor liver functional reserve after curative treatment. Methods: Between April 2000 and April 2014, 212 CP-BC patients who received treatment in five high-volume centers in Japan were included in this study. CP-B and C patients were 206 and 6, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for DFS and OS were performed to estimate the risk factors. Results: The mean observation time was 1132 days. Mean Child–Pugh score and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min were 7.5 and 31.5%, respectively. Histological chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were observed in 20% and 74% patients, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors for DFS were des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) [hazard ratio (HR), 1.6; P = 0.012] and treatment without liver transplantation. Moreover, DCP was identified as an independent risk factor for OS (HR, 1.7; P = 0.01). Tumor size, number, tumor thrombus, Milan criteria, liver cirrhosis, and treatment without liver transplantation were not identified as risk factors for OS. The 5-year OS in patients with high serum DCP levels (' 90 mAU/mL) was significantly better than that in those with low serum DCP levels (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Serum DCP value before treatment predicted both DFS and OS in CP-BC patients with HCC.
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