Background: Although intestinal Behçet's disease has been treated anecdotally with various therapeutic modalities, clinical evidence regarding management of intestinal Behçet's disease is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop consensus-based practice guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of intestinal Behçet's disease by using a modified Delphi approach. Methods: Three groups of Japanese gastroenterology specialists were involved in the study: moderators, an expert panel, and a professional group. Clinical statements for ratings were extracted from relevant literature, a survey of the professional group, and by discussion among the expert panel. The expert panel rated the clinical statements according to a nine point scale. After the first round of ratings, a panelist meeting was held to discuss areas of disagreement and to clarify areas of uncertainty. The list of clinical statements was revised after the panelist meeting, and a second round of rating was conducted. Results: Thirty-two relevant articles were selected in a literature search, and 35 clinical statements were extracted. An additional 209 clinical statements were developed from the survey and discussion among gastroenterology specialists. In the first and second rounds, 56% and 60% of statements, respectively, received median scores ≥7. The range of scores decreased considerably from the first to the second round. Conclusions: 5-Aminosalycylic acid, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, enteral nutrition, total parenteral nutrition, and surgical therapy were considered standard therapy for intestinal Behçet's disease. Infliximab, colchicines, thalidomide, other pharmacological therapy, endoscopic therapy, and leukocytapheresis were deemed experimental therapy. Based on a two-round modified Delphi approach, practice guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of intestinal Behçet's disease were developed.
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