Despite the clinical importance of polydipsia, no diagnostic criteria or severity scales that comprehensively assess this condition are available. Thus, we aimed to develop diagnostic criteria and a severity scale for polydipsia based on a systematic review and well-experienced clinicians’ consensus. We performed a systematic review, identified 27 studies related to diagnostic criteria or severity classification for polydipsia, and extracted items used to assess polydipsia in these studies. Ten well-experienced clinicians—5 psychiatrists and 5 nurses—participated in the Delphi method. They evaluated 39 items extracted based on the results of the systematic review regarding (1) their necessity in diagnosing and assessing the severity of polydipsia, and (2) their relative importance rated on 7-point scale among the items included in the severity scale. The Polydipsia Diagnostic Criteria (PDC) included 4 essential items—excessive drinking, low serum sodium level or low serum osmolality, abnormal normalized diurnal weight gain, and low urine specific gravity—based on consensus reached using the Delphi method. The Polydipsia Severity Scale (PSS) included 13 items with a maximum score of 59. The first diagnostic criteria and symptom scale for polydipsia were developed based on the findings of a systematic review and well-experienced clinicians’ consensus.
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