Continuous and real-time measurement of local concentrations of systemically administered drugs in vivo must be crucial for pharmacological studies. Nevertheless, conventional methods require considerable samples quantity and have poor sampling rates. Additionally, they cannot determine how drug kinetics correlates with target function over time. Here, we describe a system with two different sensors. One is a needle-type microsensor composed of boron-doped diamond with a tip of ~40 μm in diameter, and the other is a glass microelectrode. We first tested bumetanide. This diuretic can induce deafness. In the guinea-pig cochlea injected intravenously with bumetanide, the changes of the drug concentration and the extracellular potential underlying hearing were simultaneously measured in real time. We further examined an antiepileptic drug lamotrigine in the rat brain, and tracked its kinetics and at the same time the local field potentials representing neuronal activity. The action of the anticancer reagent doxorubicin was also monitored in the cochlea. This microsensing system may be applied to analyze pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of various drugs at local sites in vivo, and contribute to promoting the pharmacological researches.
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