Cyanotic congenital heart disease is occasionally associated with kidney dysfunction, which is known as cyanotic nephropathy or cyanotic glomerulopathy. The clinical presentation of cyanotic nephropathy includes proteinuria, decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate, hyperuricemia, thrombocytopenia, or polycythemia. Although advances in surgical procedures have improved the prognosis of cyanotic congenital heart diseases, adult cases of cyanotic nephropathy are still rare, and there are few reports of kidney biopsy in adults with cyanotic nephropathy. Here, we present the case of a 41-year-old patient with Fontan palliation who developed nephrotic range proteinuria and had a kidney biopsy, which showed glomerular hypertrophy with segmental glomerulosclerosis around vascular poles, suggesting adaptive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. This case provides further understanding of kidney dysfunction due to cyanotic congenital heart disease and shows the need for attention in the management for prevention of progression to end-stage renal disease and in the selection of renal replacement therapy.
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