At mass-gathering events of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, a well-organized, on-site medical system is essential. This study evaluated the vulnerabilities of the prehospital medical system of the TOKYO 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games (TOKYO2020) to propose corrections that can be generalized to other mass gatherings. The healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) was adopted to analyze vulnerabilities of the on-site medical system proposed by the organizing committee of TOKYO2020. Processes from detecting a patient on the scene to completing transport to a hospital were analyzed. Ten processes with 47 sub-processes and 122 possible failure modes were identified. HFMEA revealed 9 failure modes as vulnerabilities: misidentification of patient, delayed immediate care at the scene, misjudgment of disposition from the on-site medical suite, and inappropriate care during transportation to hospital. Proposed corrections included surveillance to decrease blind spots, first aid brochures for spectators, and uniform protocol for health care providers at the scene. The on-site medical system amended by HFMEA seemed to work appropriately in TOKYO2020.
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