Diabetes mellitus associated with mitochondrial tRNA mutation at position 3243(DM-Mt3243) is a new disease. Patients have a distinctly different picture from MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes). During observations at the Saiseikai Central Hospital, the following findings were noted in DM-Mt3243 patients: DM-Mt3243 patients are diagnosed earlier with diabetes, compared to NIDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) controls without family history. DM-Mt3243 patients often need insulin more often than NIDDM controls without family history. Post-treatment neuropathy and insulin edema are often found in DM-Mt3243, and the two phenomena possibly have a similar pathophysiology related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Ambiguous psychiatric disorders of functional psychosis are observed frequently in DM-Mt3243. Mild headache is common in DM-Mt3243 cases. Ambiguous neuromuscular abnormaltiies such as sleep disturbance, paresthesia of the legs, edema of the legs, and palpitation may be symptoms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in DM-Mt3243. Coenzyme a maybe effective in the relief of these neuromuscular symptoms.
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