Purpose To evaluate the differences in parameters of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) between prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and benign peripheral zone (PZ). Materials and Methods Twenty-four foci of prostate cancer, 41 BPH nodules (14 stromal and 27 nonstromal hyperplasia), and 20 benign PZ from 20 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were investigated. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed using 11 b-values (0-1500 s/mm2). DKI model relates DWI signal decay to parameters that reflect non-Gaussian diffusion coefficient (D) and deviations from normal distribution (K). A mixed model analysis of variance and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the statistical significance of the metrics of DKI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Results K was significantly higher in prostate cancer and stromal BPH than in benign PZ (1.19 ± 0.24 and 0.99 ± 0.28 versus 0.63 ± 0.23, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). K showed a trend toward higher levels in prostate cancer than in stromal BPH (1.19 ± 0.24 versus 0.99 ± 0.28, P = 0.051). On the ROC analyses, a significant difference in area under the curve was not observed between K and ADC, however, K showed the highest sensitivity among three parameters. Conclusion DKI may contribute to the imaging diagnosis of prostate cancer, especially in the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and BPH.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging