Objective: For several observational studies that have reported the factors related to gastroschisis, the target population in these studies was mainly residents of Europe or the US, and there is little data on the Asian population. In this study, we summarised characteristics of Japanese women who delivered infants with gastroschisis, particularly focusing on the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), which was found to be inversely associated with gastroschisis in past studies, because the distribution of BMI is clearly different in Asia and the West. Results: We used data from a nationwide birth cohort study which recruited pregnant women between 2011 and 2014. Among 92,796 women who delivered singleton live births, the frequency of underweight (pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) was 16.2%, reference weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) 73.1%, and overweight (≥ 25.0 kg/m2) 10.6%. We identified only 9 infants with gastroschisis, 2 of whose women were underweight (frequency of gastroschisis = 0.01%), 5 were in the reference group (0.01%), and 2 were overweight (0.02%). Of these 9 women, none were aged < 20 years, 2 were aged 20-29 years (frequency = 0.01%), and 7 were aged 30-39 years (0.01%). No reduction in the occurrence of gastroschisis was apparent among Japanese women who were overweight before pregnancy.
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