STUDY DESIGN. Retrospective, observational study. OBJECTIVE. To assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in decreasing operative blood loss and the need for transfusion during posterior spinal fusion for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Blood loss associated with spinal surgery is a common potential cause of morbidity and often requires a blood transfusion, which subjects patients to the known risks of blood transfusion including transmission of diseases. Since the 1990s, intraoperative administration of antifibrinolytics has gained popularity. This study assesses the efficacy and safety of TXA in controlling blood loss during posterior spinal fusion for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents at 1 institution. METHODS. A retrospective comparative analysis of 106 consecutive adolescents undergoing posterior spinal fusion procedures at 1 institution was performed. Patients were analyzed according to treatment group: controls (63) and TXA (43). There were no significant differences in demographic (age, sex, and comorbidities) or surgical traits (surgical time, number of fused vertebrae, preoperative hematocrit and hemoglobin) between the 2 groups. RESULTS. TXA group had significantly less intraoperative blood loss (613 ± 195 mL) than the control group (1079 ± 421 mL; P < 0.001) as well as postoperative blood loss (155 ± 86 mL and 263 ± 105 mL, respectively; P < 0.001). TXA group received significantly less blood during the surgical procedure than the control group (258 ± 246 mL and 377 ± 200 mL, respectively; P < 0.001). There were no major intraoperative complications for any of the treatment groups. CONCLUSION. TXA treatment group lost significantly less blood and received significantly fewer blood transfusions than the control group without significant differences in intra- and postoperative complications. A multicenter randomized prospective analysis would provide additional information of the efficacy and safety of TXA.
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