The levitation methodology, which enables us to operate a contactless reaction without a container, is likely to be a revolutionary technology in the fields of chemistry and biology to reduce the plastic waste in life science laboratories. Here, the authors show that plasmid DNA can be effectively transfected into animal cells in a floating droplet of culture medium levitated using ultrasonic standing waves. The data indicate that there is no significant damage to the plasmid and cells during the levitating transfection time, and the transgene expression efficiency and cellular uptake in the droplet are significantly higher than those in the conventional tube, with and without shaking. These results suggest the consolidation of the endocytic uptake pathway into macropinocytosis, indicating that ultrasonic levitation induced a change in cell characteristics. This study suggests that transfection methodology using ultrasonic levitation has the potential to advance the current experimental procedures in the field of cell engineering, in addition to presenting a revolutionary containerless reactor for sustainable technology.
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