Despite intensive research as to the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-related inflammation with coagulatory disturbance, their exacerbating factors have not been well explored. This study examined the effects of pulmonary exposure to two types of nano-sized materials (carbon nano-tubes: CNT [single-wall: SWCNT, and multi-wall: MWCNT]) on lung inflammation and consequent systemic inflammation with coagulatory disturbance induced by pulmonary exposure to LPS in mice and their cellular mechanisms in vitro. ICR male mice were divided into 6 experimental groups that intra-tracheally received the vehicle, two types of CNT (4 mg/kg), LPS (33 ig/kg), or LPS plus either type of CNT. Twenty-four hours after treatment, both types of CNT alone induced lung inflammation with enhanced lung expression of proinflamma-tory cytokines, but did not synergistically exacerbate lung inflammation elicited by LPS. SWCNT significantly induced/enhanced pulmonary permeability and hyperfibrinogenemia and reduced activated protein C in the absence or presence of LPS, whereas MWCNT did moderately. Both CNT moderately, but not significantly, elevated circulatory levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In the presence of LPS, CNT tended to elevate the levels of the mediators with an overall trend, which was more prominent with SWCNT than with MWCNT. In vitro study showed that both CNT amplified LPS-induced cytokine production from peripheral blood monocytes. These results suggest that CNT can facilitate systemic inflammation with coagulatory disturbance, at least in part, via the activation of mononuclear cells, which is accompanied by moderate enhancement of acute lung inflammation related to LPS. l.
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