Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockers are very beneficial for patients with hypertension and primary aldosteronism (PA). We investigated the efficacy and safety of a newly available nonsteroidal MR blocker, esaxerenone, in Japanese patients with hypertension and PA. A multicenter, open-label study was conducted in Japan between October 2016 and July 2017. Patients with hypertension and PA received 12 weeks of treatment with esaxerenone, initiated at 2.5 mg/day and escalated to 5 mg/day during week 2 or 4 of treatment, based on individual response. The only other permitted antihypertensive therapies were stable dosages of a Ca2+ channel blocker or α-blocker. The primary efficacy outcome was a change in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) from baseline to the end of treatment. Forty-four patients were included; dose escalation to 5 mg/day was implemented for 41 of these patients. Significant decreases in SBP and DBP were observed (point estimates [95% confidence interval] −17.7 [−20.6, −14.7] and −9.5 [−11.7, −7.3] mmHg, respectively; both p < 0.0001 at the end of treatment). Significant BP reductions were evident from week 2 and continued through to week 8; BP remained stable until week 12. The antihypertensive effect of esaxerenone on SBP was significantly greater in females and in patients receiving monotherapy. The major drug-related adverse events were serum K+ increase and estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease (both 4.5%, n = 2); no gynecomastia or breast pain was observed. We conclude that esaxerenone is a potent MR blocker with favorable efficacy and safety profiles in patients with hypertension and PA.
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