This was a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, open-label comparator study to investigate the efficacy and safety of esaxerenone (CS-3150), a novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, in Japanese patients with essential hypertension. Eligible patients (n = 426) received esaxerenone (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/day), placebo, or eplerenone (50–100 mg/day) for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). Safety endpoints included adverse events and serum K+ elevation. There were significant dose–response reductions in the 2.5 and 5 mg/day esaxerenone groups for sitting BP (both p < 0.001) and 24-h BP (both p < 0.0001) compared with placebo, with a mean (95% confidence interval) change in sitting BP of −7.0 (−9.5 to −4.6)/−3.8 (−5.2 to −2.4) mmHg in the placebo group, and −10.7 (−13.2 to −8.2)/−5.0 (−6.4 to −3.6) mmHg, −14.3 (−16.8 to −11.9)/−7.6 (−9.1 to −6.2) mmHg, and −20.6 (−23.0 to −18.2)/ −10.4 (−11.8 to −9.0) mmHg for the 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/day esaxerenone groups, respectively, while the change was −17.4 (−19.9 to −15.0)/−8.5 (−9.9 to −7.1) mmHg for eplerenone. The incidence of adverse events was similar in all treatment groups. Serum K+ levels initially increased in proportion with esaxerenone dose but were stable from week 2 until week 12. Plasma esaxerenone concentration increased in proportion with the dose. In conclusion, esaxerenone is an effective and tolerable treatment option for patients with essential hypertension.
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