Background: Rifabutin-based regimens are used as rescue therapy for refractory Helicobacter pylori infection; however, the duration for which treatment is required and side effects are concerning. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of 7-day rifabutin, amoxicillin, and vonoprazan triple therapy as third- or later-line treatment for H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: Patients who did not respond to second-line therapy were enrolled. After H. pylori infection was confirmed with the culture method, the patients received rifabutin-containing triple therapy (20 mg vonoprazan b.i.d., 500 mg amoxicillin q.i.d., and 150 mg rifabutin q.d.) for 7 days. Twelve weeks after the eradication therapy, successful eradication was confirmed using a 13C urea breath test or the H. pylori stool antigen test. The results obtained from our previous study that reported a 10-day or 14-day esomeprazole based rifabutin-containing triple therapy as a third- or fourth-line rescue therapy treated patients were used as historical control. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin and rifabutin. We also evaluated whether the patients were positive for the mutation of the rpoB gene. Results: Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed that our regimen resulted in a high eradication rate (91.2%, 95% CI: 84%–99% and 92.7%, 95% CI: 86%–100%, respectively). Adverse events occurred in 31.6% of the patients, and two patients discontinued the therapy. Conclusions: This is the first study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 7-day low-dose rifabutin-based triple therapy with vonoprazan and amoxicillin. Our results suggest that our regimen was effective and safe as a third- or later-line H. pylori eradication regimen. To clarify what component in this regimen are critical, subsequent studies using a factorial design (comparing vonoprazan-amoxicillin dual therapy vs. vonoprazan-rifabutin triple therapy) will be needed.
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