Introduction: In Japan, adjuvant tegafur-uracil (UFT) chemotherapy is recommended for patients with completely resected, stage I NSCLC. This treatment requires real-world re-evaluation because of recent advances in target-based and immuno-oncological treatments and refinement of lung cancer staging. Methods: The Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) 0707, a phase 3 trial comparing the benefits of UFT and S-1 (tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil) in patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC (T1 >2 cm and T2 in the TNM sixth edition), was conducted in Japan. A multicenter observational cohort study (Comprehensive Support Project for Oncology Research [CSPOR]-LC03) was also conducted for those patients excluded from JCOG 0707 during the study enrollment period. Physicians from institutions that participated in JCOG 0707 retrospectively assessed the medical records of each patient. The efficacy of UFT was evaluated in the CSPOR-LC03 cohort. Results: In the entire study population (n = 5005), patients treated with UFT (n = 1549) had significantly longer overall survival (OS) than those without any adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 3338). There was no significant difference in OS between the patients treated with UFT (n = 1061) and those without adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 1484) in the JCOG 0707-eligible population (logrank p = 0.755). For tumors without ground-glass attenuation and size greater than 3 cm, patients treated with UFT had significantly longer survival than those without adjuvant chemotherapy, on univariate but not on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in OS between the patients treated with UFT and those without adjuvant chemotherapy in the clinical trial-eligible population. Adjuvant UFT for patients with completely resected NSCLC may be recommended only in patients with a tumor without ground-glass attenuation and size greater than 3 cm. In patients with node-negative early NSCLC, further study is needed to select patients who will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
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