Objective: Neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease have been reported to increase the risk for fractures. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of risedronate against hip fracture in patients with neurological diseases. Methods: The literature was searched with PubMed from 1995 to the present, with respect to strictly conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with narrow confidence intervals (CIs), and a meta-analysis was conducted. Results: Four RCTs met the criteria; one RCT for Alzheimer's disease (n = 461, mean age = 78 years), two RCTs for stroke (n = 267, mean age = 76 years for men; n = 345, mean age = 71 years for women), and one RCT for Parkinson's disease (n = 223, mean age = 71 years). According to the results of RCTs, the relative risks (95% CI) for hip fracture with risedronate treatment compared with placebo treatment were 0.26 (0.10, 0.69) for Alzheimer's disease, 0.20 (0.04, 0.89) for stroke in men, 0.14 (0.02, 1.16) for stroke in women, and 0.34 (0.09, 1.21) for Parkinson's disease. Overall, the relative risk (95% CI) for hip fracture with risedronate treatment was 0.25 (0.13, 0.48), suggesting 75% of risk reduction rate with risedronate treatment in patients with one of the three neurological diseases (heterogeneity: 0.58, p = 0.9016 and overall effect: 17.36, p < 0.0001). No severe adverse events were reported in the risedronate and placebo groups. Conclusion: The results of a meta-analysis of strictly conducted RCTs suggest that there is efficacy against hip fracture and safety with risedronate treatment in patients with neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and Parkinson's disease.
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