Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have witnessed extensive application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) over the last decade. CNFs are characterized by its one-dimensional nanosized structure and excellent mechanical and electrical properties. They are desirably assembled into porous, flexible and robust platforms, on which a variety of anode and cathode active materials are loaded resulting in a promising family of LIB electrodes. Structures of the as-fabricated CNF-based composites have been verified to be of great importance to electrochemical performance. Therefore, this review aims at elaborating the relation between the structures and the electrochemical performance of CNF-based composites. Specifically, the review is sectioned by the morphology of CNFs, i.e., solid, porous and hollow, the type of active materials and the morphology of active materials. In addition, some thoughts for future progress are provided.
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