Objective. To identify predictors of poor prognosis in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods. Fifty patients with early-stage SSc-ILD who had never received disease-modifying drugs and were either observed for ≥ 10 years or died from ILD-related causes were enrolled. The baseline variables of patients who developed endstage lung disease (ESLD) were compared with those of patients who remained ESLD-free, and the Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify initial factors that correlated with ESLD development. Results. Sixteen patients (32%) developed ESLD during 173.5 64.7 months of followup. Elevated serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) at initial assessment was highly correlated with ESLD development (p = 0.0002). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that a KL-6 value of 1273 U/ml effectively discriminated patients who developed ESLD from those who did not. Patients with KL-6 > 1273 U/ml were less likely to remain ESLD-free compared with those with lower KL-6 levels (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that KL-6 > 1273 U/ml was the most reliable predictor of ESLD development (OR 51.2, 95% CI 7.6-343, p < 0.0001). Finally, the initial KL-6 level correlated with the forced vital capacity (FVC) decline rate (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001). Conclusion. The natural course of SSc-ILD is highly variable. Baseline serum KL-6 is a biomarker potentially useful for predicting FVC decline.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy