Objective: The paper examines changes in the relationship between employment and household tasks of Japanese couples, using data drawn from national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2000, and 2009 of persons aged 20-49, and from the 2009 follow-up of the 2000 survey. Results: Wives' employment is structured by their husbands' employment time and earning power, as well as by their family situations, including the presence and age of children and co-residence with parents. Housework hours of husbands, though very low, increased over time, while wives' hours decreased. Wives' housework time decreases as their employment time increases. Marriage dramatically increases women's housework time but produces little change in men's time. Husbands' housework hours are positively correlated with reported marital satisfaction of both spouses.
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