Clinical and epidemiological studies have revealed that the incidence of colorectal cancer associated with ulcerative colitis increases with long-term chronic inflammation. Careful endoscopic observation and histological studies to check for dysplasia in the colon are important in detecting neoplasia. Current surveillance protocols mainly involve frequent step biopsies to yield a reasonable rate of dysplasia detection. However, recent studies using chromoendoscopy or magnifying endoscopy have proposed that neoplastic changes may be detected efficiently. Therefore, it is very important to understand the typical endoscopic findings found in neoplastic changes in patients proven to have long-standing ulcerative colitis. In this review, we demonstrate the typical endoscopic findings by conventional endoscopy and chromoendoscopy.
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