Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal solid malignancy, and the number of patients with pancreatic cancer is increasing. Systemic chemotherapies are often ineffective for such patients, and there is an urgent need for personalized medicine. Unlike other types of cancer, personalized treatments for pancreatic cancer are still in development. Consequently, pancreatic cancer is less sensitive to anticancer drugs and is often refractory to common treatments. Therefore, advances in personalized medicine for pancreatic cancer are necessary. This review examined advances in personalized medicine for pancreatic cancer, including the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided sampling. EUS-guided sampling is widely used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors and is expected to be applied to sampled tissues. Additionally, there has been an increase in clinical research using EUS-guided sampling. The combination of precision medicine using genomic testing and pharmacological profiles based on high-throughput drug sensitivity testing using patient-derived organoids is expected to revolutionize pancreatic cancer treatment.
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