Vitreoretinal surgery has recently undergone remarkable developments. The introduction of micro-incision vitrectomy surgery using 25-and 23-gauge techniques has led to minimally invasive, faster, safer, and more accurate surgeries. Similarly, intraocular illumination and observation systems have advanced from light pipes to chandelier illumination, slit illumination, wide-angle viewing systems, and intraocular endoscopes. Compared to observation via the cornea and optic media, vitreous surgery using an endoscope is extremely useful, as the endoscope is inserted directly into the eye, circumventing the difficulties of corneal clouding and small pupil diameters. Furthermore, there are no blind spots after surgery. We here discuss the advantages of intraocular endoscope use, the current state of endoscopy-guided vitreoretinal surgery, and its future prospects.
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