Introduction: Percutaneous transluminal pulmonary angioplasty (PTPA) was introduced for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) in the late 20th century, and first attempts in collective patients were made in 2001 with beneficial effects but a moderate amount of complications. It was refined around 2010, and has been recently established as an effective and safe treatment. Areas covered: The indication was originally inoperable CTEPH with peripheral lesions, but has now widened to symptomatic or hypoxic patients. The lesion is typically a meshwork-like structure of organized thrombi and is sometimes not seen as a stenosis angiographically, necessitating other means of investigation such as measurement of distal pressure. The technique to treat lesions is the same as for coronary angioplasty except in several ways. Expert commentary: The effects of PTPA are comparable to those of surgical endarterectomy, and the complications of reperfusion pulmonary edema and vascular injury are now controlled by several strategies and based on experience.
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