Cerebral ischemia in adult rodent models increases the proliferation of endogenous neural progenitor cells residing in the subventricular zone along the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle (SVZa) and induces neurogenesis in the postischemic striatum and cortex. Whether the adult primate brain preserves a similar ability in response to an ischemic insult is uncertain. We used the DNA synthesis indicator bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly generated cells in adult macaque monkeys and show here that the proliferation of cells with a progenitor phenotype (double positive for BrdU and the markers Musashi1, Nestin, and βIII-tubulin) in SVZa increased during the second week after a 20-min transient global brain ischemia. Subsequent progenitor migration seemed restricted to the rostral migratory stream toward the olfactory bulb and ischemia increased the proportion of adult-generated cells retaining their location in SVZa with a progenitor phenotype. Despite the lack of evidence for progenitor cell migration toward the postischemic striatum or prefrontal neocortex, a small but sustained proportion of BrdU-labeled cells expressed features of postmitotic neurons (positive for the protein NeuN and the transcription factors Tbr1 and Islet1) in these two regions for at least 79 days after ischemia. Taken together, our data suggest an enhanced neurogenic response in the adult primate telencephalon after a cerebral ischemic insult.
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