Purpose: We developed an effective immunotherapy, which could induce antitumor immune responses against shared and unique tumor antigens expressed in autologous tumors. Experimental Design: Intratumoral administration of dendritic cells is one of the individualized immunotherapies; however, the antitumor activity is relatively weak. In this study, we attempted to enhance the antitumor efficacy of the i.t. dendritic cell administration by combining dendritic cells stimulated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) additionally with cryoablative pretreatment of tumors and analyzed the therapeutic mechanisms. Results: These two modifications (cryoablation of tumors and BCG-CWS stimulation of dendritic cells) significantly increases the antitumor effect on both the treated tumor and the untreated tumor, which was distant at the opposite side, in a bilateral s.c. murine CT26 colon cancer model. Further analysis of the augmented antitumor effects revealed that the cryoablative pretreatment enhances the uptake of tumor antigens by the introduced dendritic cells, resulting in the induction of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells responsible for the in vivo tumor regression of both treated and remote untreated tumors. This novel combination i.t. dendritic cell immunotherapy was effective against well-established large tumors. The antitumor efficacy was further enhanced by depletion of CD4+CD25 +FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Conclusions: This novel dendritic cell immunotherapy with i.t. administration of BCG-CWS-treated dendritic cells following tumor cryoablation could be used for the therapy of cancer patients with multiple metastases.
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