Objectives: To examine the relationship between erectile function status and prostate-specific antigen bounce after prostate brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods: We identified 154 patients who were followed up for at least 24 months after brachytherapy. Erectile function status was assessed prospectively before brachytherapy (baseline), and 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months postoperatively using the International Index of Erectile Function-15 questionnaire. Prostate-specific antigen bounce was defined as an increase of at least 0.4 ng/mL from a previous prostate-specific antigen level with a subsequent decline equal to, or less than, the initial nadir without treatment. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify a significant set of independent predictors of prostate-specific antigen bounce after brachytherapy. Results: Prostate-specific antigen bounce was observed in 38 (24.7%) men. The prostate-specific antigen bounce group had a higher erectile function domain score, higher orgasmic function domain score, and higher total International Index of Erectile Function-15 score before (at baseline) and after brachytherapy (3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months after brachytherapy) than their counterparts (P < 0.05). Of the 77 patients who completed the International Index of Erectile Function-15 questionnaire 18 months after brachytherapy (the median time of prostate-specific antigen bounce), sexual desire and intercourse satisfaction domain scores, and total International Index of Erectile Function scores 18 months after brachytherapy correlated with the occurrence of prostate-specific antigen bounce. A multivariate analysis identified the intercourse satisfaction domain score 18 months after brachytherapy as an independent indicator for the occurrence of prostate-specific antigen bounce (P = 0.008). Conclusions: International Index of Erectile Function-15 score seems to be correlated with the prostate-specific antigen bounce in prostate cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy, and an occurrence of prostate-specific antigen bounce seems to be more likely in those who are more sexually active.
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